Malling-Hansen, the volapykist

Vi vet at RMH var dypt fascinert av det fųrste internasjonale kunstspråket, volapyk, og han lęrte det også så godt at han kunne oversette tekster fra dansk til volapyk, og omvendt. I en artikkel fra Berlingske Tidende på hundreårsdagen for RMHs fųdsel skrev RMHs svigersųnn, Fritz August Bech, som kanskje var RMHs viktigste biograf, et avsnitt om RMHs forhold til volapyk. Han forteller at RMH selv oversatte og besųrget oversettelsen av H. C. Andersens eventyr til volapyk, og han holdt også foredrag om dette verdensspråkets verdi. Og med sin sedvanlige sans for humor, og for gode påfunn, inviterte også RMH sine beste venner og deres hustruer til en volapyk-middag!

 

 

 

Et utsnitt av Fritz Augusts artikkel om RMH i Berlingske Tidende 1935
Fritz August Bech fotografert ved Dųvstummeinstituttet i Fredericia i 1909
Rasmus Malling-Hansen, etter et fotografi fra 1887. Copyright: DKB

 

 

 

Her er hva Fritz August Bech skrev i artikkelen fra 1935:

 

”Malling-Hansen var med all sin Flid og Optagethed aldeles ikke nogen pedantisk og tųr Stuelęrd, tvęrtimod et levende Menneske, der var optaget af alt, hva der rųrte sig i Tiden. Da det fųrste internationale Kunstsprog, Volapyk, kom til Kųbenhavn, fandt han straks i dets logiske Opbygning en Forklaring paa, hvorfor de dųvstumme Bųrn har saa svęrt ved at lęre vort eget Sprog korrekt: Det levende Sprog har saa mange Luner, Afvigelser fra Logikken og er derfor uberegnelig med Hensyn til Periode og Sętningsbygning. Fųlgelig blev han en ivrig Volapykist, foretog selv eller sųrgede for Oversęttelse af H. C. Andersens Eventyr til Volapyk og holdt ogsaa Foredrag om dette Sprogs international Vęrdi.

     Paa en av Charlottenborg-Udstillingerne i Firserne var udstillet et Maleri af Engelsted, forestillende den saakaldte Kvartet: Malling-Hansen, Overlęrer Kaper (Borgmesterens Far), Direktųr Ritzau (Grundlęggeren af R. B.) og Arkivar i Krigsministeriet, Kaptajn Feilberg ved L’hombrebordet. Disse 4 og deres Hustruer, der alle var dus, samledes i Vintertiden en Gang om Ugen til Kortspil hos hinanden, men havde ofte tillige en eller anden Spųg for, bl. a. gav M.-H. saaledes paa den Tid en Volapyk-Middag, med Menuen hektograferet baade paa Volapyk og Dansk – kun gik Vinen paa begge sprog op i en hųjere Enhed under benevnelsen Pumpenhejmer – Lamper behęngte med og Bordet dękket i volapykiske Farver, Gul og Lila. Det var meget festlig og morsomt.”

 

 

 

Her er de fire vennene på maleriet som hang på utstilling ved den Nordiske kunst- og industriutstillingen i Kųbenhavn i 1888. Fra venstre: Erik Riztau, Gustav Feilberg, Rasmus Malling-Hansen og Johannes Kaper. Kvinnen på bildet er Ritzaus kone, Anna. Bildet er malt av den danske kunstneren Malthe Engelstedt, og var et i en serie med kortspillende mennesker.
Johann Martin Schleyer, 1831-1912, oppfinneren av kunstspråket volapyk.

 

 

 

Om volapyk fra wikipedia:

 

"Volapyk (volapük på volapyk) er et kunstsprog som var populęrt i slutningen af det 19.  århundrede.

 

Volapyk blev lavet af Johann Martin Schleyer, en katolsk pręst i Baden, Tyskland, og offentliggjort i 1879 (nogle kilder siger 1880). Schleyer sagde at Gud i en drųm havde bedt ham lave et internationalt sprog.

 

Volapyk blev hurtigt populęrt med over hundrede tusinde tilhęngere. Der blev afholdt internationale kongresser i 1884 i Friedrichshafen, i 1887 i München og i 1889 i Paris. Der var i 1889 anslået 283 klubber, 25 tidsskrifter på eller om volapyk, og 316 lęrebųger på 25 sprog.

 

Volapyks ordforråd stammer hovedsageligt fra engelsk - med indslag fra tysk og fransk - ofte ęndret så ordene ikke umiddelbart er genkendelige. For eksempel stammer vol og pük fra de engelske ord world (verden) og speak (tale). Grammatikken er modelleret over de indoeuropęiske sprog, men gjort regelmęssig og agglutinerende.

 

Ligesom volapyk hurtigt blev populęrt, faldt dets udbredelse hastigt igen frem mod århundredeskiftet. Der er ingen entydig forklaring på dette, men fųlgende faktorer er foreslået:

 

  • Schleyer insisterede på at sproget var hans ejendom hvilket forhindrede det i at udvikle sig på en naturlig måde.

  • Volapyk var for svęrt at lęre at beherske. Til illustration af dette kan nęvnes at omgangssproget på de to fųrste kongresser ikke var volapyk, men tysk.

  • Esperantos fremkomst i 1887. Esperanto er lettere at lęre, og mange volapykklubber konverterede til esperanto.

  • Der er stadig volapykister i dag, men anslået under hundrede.

Bųnnen fader vor på volapyk:

 

O Fat obas, kel binol in süls,

 

paisaludomöz nem ola!

 

Kömomöd monargän ola!

 

Jenomöz vil olik,

 

äs in sül, i su tal.

 

Bodi obsik vädeliki givolös obes adelo.

 

E pardolös obes debis obsik,

 

äs id obs aipardobs debeles obas.

 

E no obis nindukolös in tentadi,

 

sod aidalivolös obis de bad.

 

Jenosöd!

 

I dag er sproget volapyk nęsten glemt, men ordet er bevaret i det danske sprog med betydningen vrųvl eller uforståelig tale. Dette skyldes sikkert ordenes totale uforståelighed for de uindviede. Mange vil opfatte eksemplet ovenfor som det rene volapyk - også uden at vide at det er volapyk! I denne betydning er volapyk synonymt med kaudervęlsk." da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volapyk

 

I Norge fantes volapyk-klubber ihvertfall i Kristiania, Bergen og Trondheim, og et felles dansk-norsk tidsskrift hadde volapyk-nyheter fra Norge. Fra det vet vi f.eks. at Bjųrnstjerne Bjųrnson deltok på en middag arrangert av volapykister i Kųbenhavn.

 

Sannsynligvis har Ramus Malling-Hansen både vęrt aktiv deltager ved disse middagene arrangert av volakypister i Kųbenhavn, og også bidratt med artikler til det felles dansk-norske tidsskriftet. Men her gjenstår ennå mye forskning. I fremtiden vil det forhåpentligvis bli mulig å finne ut flere detaljer om RMHs aktiviteter på dette området.

 

Oslo, 09.08.07

Sverre Avnskog 

 

 

 

 

Det danske Volapyk tidsskriftet "Timaplenäd Volapükik", redigert av Jens Bayer, publiserte i 1889, en artikkel skrevet av Malling-Hansen, med tittelen "Influenza e vätaglofam cilas". (Se engelsk oversettelse lengre ned på siden). Men artikkelen var ikke skrevet på volapyk av Malling-Hansen selv, men var oversatt av redaksjonen, etter oppfordring fra Malling-Hansen. Men at Malling-Hansen behersket volapyk vet vi av at han oversatte et eventyr fra volapyk til dansk, og også selv bekostet utgivelsen. 

 

På den tyskspråklige utgaven av Wikipedia, står fųlgende om volapyk i Danmark:

In Kopenhagen fand vom 26. bis 29. Juli v. J. ein großer Kongreß von dänischen Volapükisten statt, welcher auch von vielen ausländischen Volapükisten besucht war. Daselbst war auch ein Bauer erschienen, der Volapśk selbst erlernt hatte. Derselbe konnte sich mit allen Anwesenden in Volapük unterhalten. Ein Berichterstatter sagt, dieser Kongreß habe bewiesen, daß Volapük auch zur mündlichen Verständigung vollkommen geeignet sei. Bemerkenswert ist auch, was Herr Pastor und Taubstummenlehrer Hansen betonte, daß ein Taubstummer Volapük in dem fünften Teil der Zeit erlerne, die er für das Dänische brauche.

 

Denne informasjonen bygger på boken, Rupert Kniele, Das erste Jahrzehnt der Weltsprache Volapük, 1889

 

Her opplyses det også at Rasmus Malling-Hansen i januar 1889 var med og grunnla, og var fųrste leder for en volapykforening i Vaalse (på ųya Falster), foreningen hadde da 44 deltagere, hvorav 11 var kvinner!

Et eventyr av Carmen Sylva, oversatt fra volapyk til dansk av Rasmus Malling-Hansen i 1889. Copyright: Det Kongelige Bibliotek i Kųbenhavn

Malling-Hansen, the volapykist

 

 

We know that RMH was deeply fascinated by the first international artificial language, Volapük, and that he learned it so well as to be able to translate texts from Danish into Volapük and vice versa. In an article published in the Danish daily Berlingske Tidende on the occasion of the centenary of RMH’s birth, RMH’s son-in-law, Fritz August Bech – quite possibly the most important biographer of RMH – wrote a passage about RMH’s relation to Volapük. He relates that RMH personally translated and caused to translate H.C.Andersen’s fairy tales into Volapük, and that he also gave lectures about the benefits of this international language. And with his usual sense of humour and good ideas RMH also invited his best friends and their wives to Volapük-dinner!

 

 

A part of the original article written by RMH's son-in-law, Fritz August Bech
Fritz August Bech, on a photo taken in frot of the Instutute for the Deaf-mute in Fredericia in 1909
Rasmus Malling-Hansen from a photo taken i 1887. Copyright: The Royal Library

 

 

This is what Fritz August Bech wrote in the article from 1935:

 

 

“Malling-Hansen was hard-working, always with many engagements, and yet he was far from being a pedantic or dry bookish man; on the contrary, he was an animated person, engaged in everything that happened in his time. When the first international artificial language, Volapük, was introduced in Copenhagen he immediately found in its logical construction an explanation why deaf-mute children find it so difficult to learn our own language correctly: The living language has so many whims and deviations from logic and is therefore erratic in relation to period and sentence structure. Consequently, he became an avid Volapükist, translated or arranged for translation of H.C. Andersen’s Fairy Tales into Volapük and also gave lectures about the international benefits of this language.   One of the Charlottenburg Art Exhibitions during the 1880s included a painting by Engelsted depicting the so-called Quartet: Malling-Hansen, head teacher Kaper (father of the mayor), Director Ritzau (the founder of Ritzau’s News Agency), and the keeper of the archives of the War Office, captain Feilborg, as they are sitting around  a table playing a game of ombre. These 4 men and their wives – all of them on familiar terms with each other – used to meet during the winter season once a week for a game of cards. Quite often this was combined with some other amusing activity, for instance M.-H arranged a Volapük-dinner, having copied the menu in Danish as well as Volapük – except for the wine which in both languages was designated “pumpenhejmer”[1]. The lamps and the table were decorated and covered with the Volapük colours – yellow and mauve. It was very festive and amusing.”

 

 


[1] JMC: Untranslatable word. It is not a real word, rather a pun based on the German word “pappenheimer” (= a heavy rapier of the 17th century) and the Danish Word “pumpe” (= pump). The point here, however, is that RMH was able to play with the words in an innovative way and come up with a new word with a comic ring to it.

This painting of the four friends playing l'hombre was one of a series of paintings of card playing people, maid by Malthe Engelstedt. They were diplayed on the large Art and Industrial Exhibition in Denmark in 1888. The men on the painting was RMH's closest friends during the last years of his life, and they were also "brothers" of the same masonry lodge. The woman is the wife of Erik Ritzau, Anna.
Johann Martin Schleyer, 1831-1912, the inventor of the artificial language Volapük.

 

 

Wikipedia explanation about Volapük:

 

“Volapük is an artificial language popular towards the end of the 19th century.

 

Volapük was constructed by Johan Martin Schleyer, a catholic priest from Germany and made public in 1879 (or 1880 according to some sources). Schleyer himself claimed that God in a dream had requested him to construct an international language.

 

Volapük quickly gained popularity with more than a hundred thousand proselytes. International conventions were held in 1884 in Friedrichshafen, 1887 in München and in Paris 1889. In 1889 there were an estimated 283 clubs, 25 periodicals in or about Volapük and a total of 316 manuals in 25 different languages.

 

The vocabulary of Volapük comes mainly from English – with elements of German and French – frequently changed in such a way that the words are not immediately recognizable. E.g. the words vol  and pük stems from  the English words world (verden) and speak (tale). The grammar is constructed on the basis of Indo-European languages, but has been turned regular and agglutinative.

 

While Volapük gained popularity very quickly, equally rapidly its spreading declined towards the end of the century. There is no unequivocal explanation to this development, but the following factors have been suggested:

 

·         Scleyer insisted that the language was his property, and this hampered the natural development of the language.

 

·         Volapük was too difficult to master. As a point of illustration: the language of communication at the two first conventions was not Volapük but German.

 

·         The appearance of Esperanto in 1887. Esperanto is easier to learn, and many of the Volapük clubs converted to Esperanto.

 

·         Volapükists still exist to this very day, but their number is estimated to be less than one hundred.

 

The Lord’s Prayer in Volapük:

 

O Fat obas, kel binol in süls,

paisaludomöz nem ola!

Kömomöd monargän ola!

Jenomöz vil olik,

äs in sül, i su tal.

Bodi obsik vädeliki givolös obes adelo

E pardolös obes debis obsik,

äs id obs aipardobs debeles obas.

E no obis nindukolös in tentadi,

sod aidalivolös in tentadi,

sod aidalivolös obis de bad.

Jenosöd!

 

 

Nowadays the Volapük language is all but forgotten, but the term itself has been preserved in the Danish language, however designating ‘gibberish’, ‘incomprehensible speech’, ‘double Dutch’ or ‘gobbledygook’. This is probably due to the fact that for those not initiated in the language, the words are totally incomprehensible.

 

In Norway Volapük clubs existed in at least Kristiania, Bergen and Trondheim, and there was a Danish-Norwegian periodical with news in Volapük from Norway. From that periodical we have learnt that Bjųrnstjerne Bjųrnson once participated in a dinner arranged by volapükists in Copenhagen.”

 

 

It is likely that Rasmus Malling-Hansen was an active participant at these dinners arranged by volapükists in Copenhagen, and also that he contributed with articles to the Danish-Norwegian periodical. However, much research remains to be done. Hopefully it will be possible in future to find more details about RMH’s activities in this field.

 

 

Oslo, August 9, 2007

Sverre Avnskog

 

 

Influenza e vätaglofam cilas

In 1889, an article by Rasmus Malling-Hansen was published in the Danish Volapük journal, "Timapenäd Volapükik", wich was edited by J. Bayer. The title of the article was "Influenza e vätaglofam cilas". We are very happy to bring on our website, an English version of this article, kindly translated by Sérgio Meira from Brazil. Mr. Meira is a sincere spokesman in favour of the artificial world language, Volapük, and is also working on an article about Malling-Hansen on the Volapük version of Wikipedia:

http://vo.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rasmus_Hansen

 

Influenza and the weight growth of children

By R. Malling-Hansen, director of the royal institute for the teaching of the deaf-mute in Köbenhavn.

 

In the royal institute for the teaching of the deaf-mute in Köbenhavn, all students have been weighed every day in the last seven years. Since a "balance ą bascule centésimale" (centesimal scale) can weigh up to 15 children in one go, it is used for the weighing. At present 40 boys and 31 girls are weighed, divided in sevel groups; each group is weighed separately; the complete weighing is carried out in a few minutes. The numbers (weights) recorded every day register the weight of every group and the total weight of all children but not of each individual child.

Such daily weighing of a large number of children is something totally new and has given new information [1] about variations in children weight growth, among which also that the weight growth of our children [lit. the children of here] happens above all in autumn and in the beginning of the first month of winter, but that the growth during the following two winter months, and during March and the beginning of April, is too small and is followed by weight decrease (?--check!) which lasts till the final part of summer.

 

These changes in the weight growth of our students in different seasons have repeated themselves very regularly in the seven years during which the weighing has happened. Now for the first time in this long period a not-small exception has happened, and the beginning of this exception is approximately the same as the time when the contagious disease "influenza"; ("la grippe") arrived at Copenhagen.

 

In the year 1889, the curves representing the weight of the children were completely similar to the usual ones, already known from previous years, until the 22nd of November - but then the usual weight growth stopped on the 23rd of November and this stop remained unchanged for four weeks, from that day till the 22nd of December. According to the experience of the previous seven years, the weight of each child should grow in average more than 500 grams during these four weeks; but this weight growth has not happened at all for the grils, and has been for the boys only about 200 grams per person, i.e. less than 2/5 of the normal weight growth.

 

This stop of weight growth during four weeks is even more remarkable when we compare it to the same weeks of the year 1888, because the weight of each child -- boys and girls -- grew in the year 1888 from November 24 to December 21 about 700 grams more than during the same weeks of the year 1889.

 

No changes in the feeding of the children or in other local circumstances happened during this period of four weeks; a more probable idea is that the unusual growth situation of the children was brought about by the already mentioned contagious disease. It is true that we cannot demonstrate fully that the infuenza arrived here precisely on November 23; but, since the first 59 cases of influenza in Köbenhavn were reported to the city's official physician in the week from December 1st to 7th, there is non-insignificant reason to suppose that this disease was already here eight days before that.

 

The health situation of the students was all in all good; though six of the teachers caught the influenza, this disease did not afflict any of the children during these four weeks; there were more cases of cold (rhume, catarrhe), but this was in no way unusual or more serious than in other years during autumn and the beginning of winter. Consequently, though the official lists report no case of influenza among the students of the royal institute for the teaching of the deaf-mute, my curves, registering the weight of children, report the opposite: they report that in the nearest days before November 23 the invisible causers of influenza penetrated into our institute, that the battle between them and the children began to show its consequences clearly on December 23, that this battle absorbed somewhat the strength of the children, that almost no excess of food was given by the organs of nourishment for the usual weight growth of children, that the weight growth of children during the four weeks after the already mentioned day decreased in about 500 grams per person in comparison with the norm, that each of the seven weighing groups of children felt the effects of the strike (of influenza), above all the group of older girls (age 15-17), and least of all the group of older boys, and finally that the boys have had until now more resistance strength than the girls.

 

Officially we therefore do not have influenza, but from these results it seems every child in the institute has been the object of attack by influenza during these four weeks. Conclusion: we all have influenza.

 

 

  - - - -

 

 

The above article was printed in the Köbenhavn newspaper "Nationaltidende", morning issue, 4th of January of the present year. We hope to be able to give, later on, further news on the general results, already known to all foreign physicians, and about the scientific importance (?--check!) of the daily weighings and measurements made by the author, who is also a dilligent and enthusiastic Volapükist.

 

In this article the author gives in his report proof of something, about which one had only suspected or speculated, but not been able to prove thus far: that any contagious disease has a damaging effect on all people, even if the symptoms of the disease exist clearly only in a small part of the people -- here is something very interesting for all physiologists.

 

We ask every Volapükist, but especially also the heads of all clubs/associations, who read the above article, to translate it into their native languages and to send their translations to as many local daily newspapers and scientific journals as possible, asking the editors to accept (publish) them.

 

The observations of Mr. MALLING-HANSEN have great present interest. Our request to all Volapükists is thus justified. If it will be possible to say: these remarkable observations were spread quicklyover the whole Earth only via Volapük, and none other than our already used international language could have reached such good and quick divulgation results - then the translating efforts of Volapükists will have served very well our great cause.

 

We finally ask very strongly that one copy of each of the newspapers and journals that publish the translation be sent to the editor of this journal (Timapenäd Volapükik pro Dän e Norgän).

 

We will soon publish articles by the author in which he will give further (very interesting) news about the effects of influenza, which is still here, on the weight of children. But, unfortunately, our financial means do not allow us to mail offprints of these issues to all Volapük associations; so we ask them to subscribe to our newspaper, if they wish - maybe according to the desire of daily newspapers and scientific journals - to provide them asquickly as possible with this latest news.

 

THE EDITORS.

 

Footnotes:

[1] For further information see especially: "Perioden im Gewicht der Kinder und in der Sonnenwärme, Beobachtungen von R. Malling-Hansen";, Kopenhagen. V. Tydes Buchhlandlung; price: 10 marks

 

 

See also a private letter from Malling-Hansen to Mr. Jens Bayer from 1890.

 

 

Obituary published in "Timapenäd Volapükik", 1890

After Malling-Hansen's death in September 1890, the following obituary was published in the Danish Volapyk periodical, "Timapenäd Volapükik", which was edited by J. Bayer, who also knew Malling-Hansen personally. The obituary is translated from Volapük to English by Sérgio Meira from Brazil. We want to express our deepest gratidude to him for his very generous contribution to the understanding of Malling-Hansen's interest in the artificial world language, Volapük. See also Mr. Meiras article about Malling-Hansen in the Volapük version of Wikipedia: http://vo.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rasmus_Hansen

 

R. MALLING-HANSEN (obituary)

 

We bring this time sad news to our readers. The Priest R. Malling-Hansen, director of the royal institute for the teaching of the deaf-mute in Köbenhavn, died unexpectedly on the 27th of September, 1890, at the age of 55.

 

H. R. M. J. Malling-Hansen was born on the island of Lolland on Sept. 5th, 1835, and was the son of a poor schoolteacher in the country. As soon as he had reached the necessary age he was sent to the city of Maribo as an apprentice PÄNALENAMUNA (?-- maybe a typo?), but there an excellent man reported about this young manso desirous of knowledge, and thanks to him he went to Jonstrup (j=y in Volapük), one of the state seminars in Denmark for school-teachers. After a three-year stay he sucessfully did the exam (grade: BIZUGIKO (sufficient?)), and went then to the universityof Köbenhavn to study theology. He became a student in 1858, and in 1859 was employed as teacher at the royal institute for the deaf-mute in Köbenhavn; after he acted for a while as director of the institute of deaf-mute in the city of Schleswig (now in Germany), he passed his theological exam in 1865 and was employed a few days after that as director of the institute in Köbenhavn. - In this position, he worked with great success for the improvement of the teaching methods for the deaf-mute and forthe systematic organization of teaching with respect to the various types of deaf-mute, so much, that no other country has till now such an organized system. The teaching of the deaf-mute was and remained the red (=main?) thread of his life, and it is possible to show that all his other interests originated in his interest for the deaf-mute. For instance, the invention of the typewriter ("writing-ball") - having almost the same structure as the newer typewritters e.g. by Remington or Hammond - originated from his use of the hand-alphabet of the deaf-mute, and his studies of weight and measure of children (which led to the writing of the book: Periods in the growth of children and the warmth of the sun) from research about the best norm for feeding the children of the institute. Also his interest for Volapük can be seen to originate in his care for his students; he affirmed - as we cited before - that it was possible to teach the deaf-mute as much with Volapük in one year, as it would take four years to teach with Danish.

 

Nobody has been a more insightful Volapükist than he. He had the firmest confidence in using our language, which he considered as one of the greatest inventions of humankind, and the greatest conviction in its usefulness for all business of the spirit.

 

He studied Volapük dilligently in the brief free moments that he was allowed by his as educator of those poor people to whom the use of language was denied, and whose second father he was, and by public functions that were given him because of his rare dilligence and efficiency. He was a talented Volapükist [1], o whom only the constant works and the great modesty were obstacles to a greater fame than he had among Volapükists. But he was known to the readers of this journal, for which he always had great interest, and of which he was a dedicated contributor since its foundation. It was he who asked the editors to translate into Volapük - his many duties did not allow him to do it himslef - his article, published in a daily newspaper in Köbenhavn, on the newest consequences of the weighing and measurement of his students - an article which, thanks to Volapük, was translated into 8 languages and was published in 17 newspapers and scientific journals. He had promised to further provide information about subsequent results - but, unfortunately, death now does not allow him to fulfil this promise. [2]

 

For us, who work with weak capacity for the divulgation of Volapük in our little country, he was a great adviser and a charming friend, who participated in our work whenever it was possible for him, and who more than once provided important help.

 

He will be so remembered by us, and his memory will be to us a new stimulus to continuing our work in favor of our cause.

 

J.B.

 

Footnotes:

[1] He anslated, for instance, dr. Lederer's translation of the tale by Carmen Sylva, "Lied", and very well. He even paid the costs of the publication of his translation in the interest of Volapük.

[2] But we hope that one of our collaborators will in the future give a report to our readers about his already mentioned book, a very interesting work which contains these subsequent results.

 

This fairytale was translated from Volap˙k to Danish by Rasmus Malling-Hansen in 1889. Copyright: The Royal Library